According to the National Cancer Institute, this diagnosis is given to between 2 and 4 percent of all those newly diagnosed with cancer. Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is attributed when the disease has metastasized, but the place where the cancer began cannot be determined. Since many cancers are named after the place of origin, the designation of CUP is given in these cases.
It’s suspected that the original (primary) tumor may be small or have shrunk without discovery. It is also possible that the original tumor was unknowingly removed, such as during a hysterectomy or the removal of a mole. CUP is most often found in the lymph nodes, liver, lungs, pancreas or bone, but can be found in other sites, as well.
Recently, advances in diagnostic capabilities have dramatically improved, thus enabling physicians to ultimately identify cancers originally determined to be CUP. Sometimes, the type of cells found within the metastasis can help determine the hidden primary site.
At the beginning of February 2012, Eliza Ho went to see her doctor about the stomach pains she was having. An ultrasound revealed a huge mass in her liver and a follow-up CT scan showed tumors in her lungs, pelvis and neck. Originally thought to be liver cancer, that has since been ruled out. Read Eliza Ho’s entire story.
Chemotherapy is the most common treatment option for CUP. But, since conventional treatment plans are based on protocols developed for known primaries, the typical treatment plan for a CUP diagnosis depends heavily on the size, location of the tumor found, where it has spread and the patient’s general health.
While most oncologists will use existing protocol guidelines to treat these unknown tumor types, at Rational Therapeutics your treatment plan will be developed based on chemo and targeted therapies that have shown, in the lab, to kill your tumor cells. The EVA-PCD assay uses a sample of your tumor to create a functional profile of your cancer. Based on the results, treatment recommendations are developed for you without needing to define the primary site of your cancer. At Rational Therapeutics, our philosophy is that "it is less important to know where a tumor came from than it is to know how to treat it."